Fashion Blogger Rebecca Moore Howard


Anderson, Vivienne, and Karen Fitts.  “Awakening Students to Rhetorical Process:  Audience, Ethos and Anonymity in Journal Correspondence.”  Journal of Teaching Writing (Special issue, 1989):  175-92.

Ballif, Michelle.  “What Is It That the Audience Wants?  Or, Notes Toward a Listening with a Transgendered Ear for (Mis)Understanding.”  JAC:  A Journal of Composition Theory 19.1 (Winter 1999):  51-70.

Barrett, Harold.  Rhetoric and Civility:  Human Development, Narcissism, and the Good Audience.  SUNY P.

Barry, Dave.  “Selling Newspapers in a Jimmy Eat World.”  Miami Herald 13 October 2002.  <> 13 October 2002.

Bartholomae, D.  “Inventing the University.” When a Writer Can’t Write:  Studies in Writer’s Block and Other Composing-Process Problems.  Ed. Mike Rose.  NY:  Guilford, 1985.  134-65.

Berkenkotter, Carol.  “Understanding a Writer’s Awareness of Audience.”  College Composition and Communication 32 (1981):  388-99.

Berlin, James A.  “Postmodernism, Politics, and Histories of Rhetoric.”  Pre/Text 11.3-4 (Fall/Winter 1990):  169-88.

Black, Kathleen.  “Audience Analysis and Persuasive Writing at the College Level.”  Research in the Teaching of Writing 23 (October 1989):  231-53.

Blakeslee, Ann M.  Interacting with Audiences:  Social Influences on the Production of Scientific Writing.  Mahwah, NJ:  Lawrence Erlbaum, 2001.

Blau, Herbert.  The Audience.  Baltimore:  Johns Hopkins UP, 1990.

Brooke, Robert, and John Hendricks.  Audience Expectations and Teacher Demands.  Carbondale and Edwardsville:  Southern Ill UP, 1989.

Burkland, Jill, and Nancy Grimm.  “Motivating Through Responding.”  Journal of Teaching Writing 5 (1986):  237-48.

Caernarvon-Smith, Patricia.  Audience Analysis and Response.  Pembroke:  Firman Technical Publications, 1983.

Clark, Irene L.  “Audience.”  Concepts in Composition:  Theory and Practice in the Teaching of Writing.  Ed. Irene L. Clark.  Mahwah, NJ:  Lawrence Erlbaum, 2003.

Collier, R.M.  Writer-based prose, creativity research, and protocol analysis.  Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Conference on College Composition and Communication, San Francisco, March 1982.  (ERIC Domument Reproduction Service No. ED 221 858).  These results suggest several pieces of practical advice for composition teachers concerning, among other things, heuristics, framing techniques, meditation, and autobiographical and expressive prose.

Collins, Daniel F.  “Audience in Afrocentric Rhetoric:  Promoting Human Agency and Social Change.”  Alternative Rhetorics:  Challenges to the Rhetorical Tradition.  Ed. Laura Gray-Rosendale and Sibylle Gruber.  Carbondale:  Southern Illinois UP, 2001.  185-202.

Dolly, Martha R.  “Linking Revising to Audience and Purpose.”  ATAC Newsletter 1 (Fall 1989):  10-12.

Drew, Julie.  “Guessing Games: Envisioning Audience.”  Composition Studies/Freshman English News (Spring 1996) 24.1-2.

Eaves, Morris. “Romantic Expressive Theory and Blake’s Idea of the Audience.”  PMLA 95 (1980):  784-801.

Edbauer, Jenny. “Unframing Models of Public Distribution: From Rhetorical Situation to Rhetorical Ecologies.” Rhetoric Society Quarterly 35.4 (2005): 5-24.

Eberly, Rosa A. “From Writers, Audiences, and Communities to Publics: Writing Classrooms as Protopublic Spaces.” Rhetoric Review 18 (1999): 165-78.

Ede, Lisa, and Andrea Lunsford.  “Audience Addressed/Audience Invoked:  The Role of Audience in Composition Theory and Pedagogy.”  College Composition and Communication 35 (1984):  155-71.

Ede, Lisa.  “Audience:  An Introduction to Research.”  College Composition and Communication 35 (1984):  140-54.

Ede, Lisa.  “On Audience and Composition.”  College Composition and Communication 30 (1979):  Audience as a situational construct.

Elbow, Peter.  “Closing My Eyes As I Speak:  An Argument for Ignoring Audience.”  College English 49 (1987):  50-69.

Ewald, Helen Rothschild.  “What We Could Tell Advanced Student Writers about Audience.”  Journal of Advanced Composition 11 (1991):  147-58.  Rpt. Landmark Essays on Advanced Composition.  Ed. Gary A. Olson and Julie Drew.  Mahwah, NJ:  Hermagoras Press, 1996.  81-90.

Faigley, Lester, et alAssessing Writers’ Knowledge and Processes of Composing.  Norwood, NJ:  Ablex, 1985.  pp. 33 ff.

Fischer, Ruth Overman.  “Students as Audience.”  Strategies for Teaching First-Year Composition.  Ed. Duane Roen, Veronica Pantoja, Lauren Yena, Susan K. Miller, and Eric Waggoner. Urbana, IL:  NCTE, 2002.  62-64.

Flower, Linda S.  “Writer-Based Prose:  A Cognitive Basis for Problems in Writing.”  College English 41 (1979):  19-37.

Gragson, Gay, and Jack Selzer.  “Fictionalizing the Readers of Scholarly Articles in Biology.”  Written Communication 7 (January 1990):  25-58.

Hall, Chris.  “Interacting with a Reader:  Using the Strip Story to Develop Reciprocity.”  College Composition and Communication 39 (1988):  353-55.

Hayes, John R., and Diana Bajzek. “Understanding and Reducing the Knowledge Effect: Implications for Writers.” Written Communication 25.1 (2008): 104-118.

Hays, Janice N., and Kathleen S. Brandt.  “Socio-Cognitive Development and Student Performance on Audience-Centered Argumentative Writing.”  Constructing Rhetorical Education.  Ed. Marie Secor and Davida Charney.  Carbondale:  Southern Illinois UP, 1992.  202-30.

Hays, Janice N., et al.  “A Sense of Audience in the Argumentative Writing of Students at Three Levels of Adult Socio-Cognitive Development.”  A Sense of Audience in Written Communication.  Ed. Duane H. Roen and Gesa Kirsch. Thousand Oaks, CA:  Sage, 1990.

Hollingsworth, H.L.  The Psychology of the Audience.  New York:  American Book Co., 1935.

Huesca, Robert, and Brenda Dervin.  “Hypertext and Journalism:  Audiences Respond to Competing News Narratives.”  Democracy and New Media.  Ed. Henry Jenkins and David Thorburn.  Cambridge, MA:  MIT P, 2003.  281-308.

Iser, Wolfgang.  “Do I Write for an Audience?”  PMLA 115.3 (May 2000):  310-314.

Kirsch, Gesa, and Duane H. Roen, eds.  A Sense of Audience in Written Communication.  Thousand Oaks, CA:  Sage, 1990.

Kirsch, Gesa.  “Writing Up and Down the Social Ladder:  A Study of Experienced Writers Composing for Contrasting Audiences.”  Research in the Teaching of English 25.1 (February 1991):  33-53.

Kroll, Barry.  “Writing for Readers:  Three Perspectives on Audience.”  College Composition and Communication 35 (1984):  172-85.

Kuriloff, Peshe C.  “What Discourses Have in Common:  Teaching the Transaction between Writer and Reader.”  College Composition and Communication 47.4 (December 1996):  485-501.

Ladegaard, Hans J.  “Audience Design Revisited:  Persons, Roles, and Power Relations in Speech Interactions.”  Language and Communication 15.1 (January 1995):  89-102.

Long, Elizabeth. “Women, Reading, and Cultural Authority: Some Implications of the Audience Perspective in Cultural Studies.”  American Quarterly 38 (Fall 1986): 591-612.

Long, Russell, “Writer-Audience Relationships:  Analysis or Invention?”  College Composition and Communication 31 (1980):  221-26.

Lunsford, Andrea A., and Lisa Ede.  “Representing Audience:  ‘Successful’ Discourse and Disciplinary Critique.”  College Composition and Communication 47.2 (May 1996):  167-79.

Maimon, Elaine P.,.  “Knowledge, Acknowledgement, and Writing across the Curriculum:  Toward an Educated Community.”  The Territory of Language:  Linguistics, Stylistics, and the Teaching of Writing.  Ed. Donald McQuade.  Carbondale:  Southern Illinois UP.  Forthcoming.

McGann, Patrick.  “Changing Visions of Audience:  Gender in the Writing Classroom.”  Radical Teacher 42 (Fall 1992):  24-7.

McQuail, Denis.  Audience Analysis.  Thousand Oaks, CA:  Sage, 1997.

Miller, Carolyn R., and Davida Charney. “Persuasion, Audience, and Argument.” Handbook of Research on Writing. Ed. Charles Bazerman. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2008. 583-598.

Miller, Hildy.  “Kaleidoscope of Values:  Composition Instructors, Noncomposition Faculty, and Students Respond to Academic Writing.”  Journal of Teaching Writing 9 (Spring/Summer 1990):  31-44.

Nystrand, Martin.  “A Social-Interactive Model of Writing.”  Written Communication 6 (1989):  66-85.

Nystrand, Martin.  “Sharing Words:  The Effects of Readers on Developing Writers.”  Written Communication 7 (January 1990):  3-24.

Ong, Walter S.J.  “The Writer’s Audience Is Always a Fiction.”  PMLA 90 (1975):  9-21.  Rpt. Interfaces of the Word:  Studies in the Evolution of Consciousness and Culture.  Ithaca:  Cornell UP, 1977.  53-81.

Park, Douglas B.  “Analyzing Audiences.”  College Composition and Communication 37 (1986):  478-88.

Park, Douglas B.  “The Meanings of ‘Audience’.”  College English 44 (1982):  247-57.

Porter, James.  Audience and Rhetoric.  Prentice Hall.

Rafoth, Bennett A.  “Audience and Information.”  Research in the Teaching of Writing 23 (October 1989):  273-91.

Ramanathan, Vai, and Robert B. Kaplan. “Audience and Voice in Current L1 Composition Texts: Some Implications for ESL Student Writers.” Journal of Second Language Writing 5.1 (1996): 21-34.

Gross, Alan G. “Presence as Argument in the Public Sphere.” Rhetoric Society Quarterly 35.2 (Spring 2005): 5-22.

Reiff, Mary Jo.  “Rereading ‘Invoked’ and ‘Addressed’ Readers Through a Social Lens:  Toward a Recognition of Multiple Audiences.”  JAC:  A Journal of Composition Theory 16.3 (1996):  407-24.

Roth, Robert G.  “The Evolving Audience:  Alternatives to Audience Accommodation.”  College Composition and Communication 38 (1987):  47-55.

Rubin, Donald L.  “Four Dimensions of Social Construction in Written Communication.”  The Social Construction of Written Communication.  Ed. Bennett A. Rafoth and Donald L. Rubin.  Norwood NJ:  Ablex, 1988:  1-30.

Sloan, John H.  “‘The Miraculous Uplifting’:  Emerson’s Relationship with His Audience.”  Quarterly Journal of Speech 52 (1966):  10-15.

Stoneham, Joyce Keever.  “What Happens When Students Have a Real Audience?”  Journal of Teaching Writing 5 (1986):  281-86.

Stout, Daniel A., and Judith M. Buddenbaum, eds.  Religion and Mass Media: Audiences and Adaptations. Thousand Oaks, CA:  Sage, 1996.

Swyt, Wendy.  “Audience as a Cultural Condition:  Using Popular Advertisements in College Writing Assignments.”  Journal of Teaching Writing 15.1 (1996):  51-64.

Tebeaux, Elizabeth, and Mary M. Lay.  “The Emergence of the Feminine Voice, 1526-1640:  The Earliest Published Books by English Renaissance Women.”  JAC:  A Journal of Composition Theory 15.1 (1995):  53-82.

Thomas, Gordon P.  “Mutual Knowledge:  A Theoretical Basis for Analyzing Audience.”    College English 48 (1986):  580-94.

Thompson, Thomas.  “Personality Preferences and the Concept of Audience.”  Understanding Literacy:  Personality Preference in Rhetorical and Psycholinguistic Contexts.  Ed. Alice S. Horning and Ronald A. Sudol.  Cresskill, NJ:  Hampton P, 1997.

Trail, George Y.  “Teaching Argument and the Rhetoric of Orwell’s ‘Politics and the English Language.”  College English 57.5 (September 1995):  570-83.

Turns, Jennifer, and Tracey S. Wagner. “Characterizing Audience for Informational Web Site Design.” Technical Communication 51.1 (2004): 68-86.

Veeder, Rex L.  “Romantic Rhetoric and the Rhetorical Tradition.”  Rhetoric Review 15.2 (Spring 1997):  300-21.

Velasco, Antonio Raul. “Rethinking Perelman’s Universal Audience: Political Dimensions of a Controversial Concept.” Rhetoric Society Quarterly 35.2 (Spring 2005): 47-65.

Wall, Beverly C., and Robert F. Peltier.  “‘Going Public’ with Electronic Portfolios:  Audience, Community, and the Terms of Student Ownership.”  Computers and Composition 13.2 (1996):  207-18.

Walzer, Arthur.  “Articles from the ‘California Divorce Project’:  A Case Study of the Concept of Audience.”  College Composition and Communication 36 (1985):  155-58.

Weiser, M. Elizabeth, Brian M. Fehler, and Angela M. Gonzalez, eds. Engaging Audience: Writing in an Age of New Literacies. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English, 2009.

Winterowd, W. Ross.  “Emerson and the Death of Pathos.”  JAC 16.1 (1996):  27-40.

Wysocki, Anne Frances.  “Impossibly Distinct:  On Form/Content and Word/Image in Two Pieces of Computer-Based Interactive Multimedia.”  Computers and Composition 18 (2001):  209-234.

Ziv, Nina D.  “The Effect of Teacher Comments on the Writing of Four College Freshmen.”  New Directions in Composition Research.  Ed.  Richard Beach and Lillian S. Bridwell.  New York:  Guilford, 1984:  362-80.