Fashion Blogger Rebecca Moore Howard

Argument and Argumentation

Abraham, Matthew.  “The Rhetoric of Academic Controversy after 9/11:  Edward Said in the American Imagination.”  JAC 24.1 (2004):  113-142.

Adler, Jonathan E.  Belief’s Own Ethics.  Cambridge, MA:  MIT P, 2002.

Adler, Jonathan E.  “Charity, Interpretation, Fallacy.”  Philosophy and Rhetoric 29.4 (1996):  329-43.

Allen, Julia M., and Lester Faigley.  “Discursive Strategies for Social Change:  An Alternative Rhetoric of Argument.”  Rhetoric Review 14.1 (Fall 1995):  142-72.

Annas, P.J., and D. Tenney.  “Positioning Oneself:  A Feminist Approach to Argument.”  Argument Revisited, Argument Redefined.  Ed. Barbara Emmel.  Thousand Oaks, CA:  Sage, 1996.

Anson, Chris, and Richard Beach.  “The Nature of Argument in Peer Dialogue Journals.”  Perspectives on Written Argument.  Ed. Deborah P. Berrill.  Cresskill, NJ:  Hampton, 1996.

Applebaum, Arthur Isak.  Ethics for Adversaries:  The Morality of Roles in Public and Professional Life.  Princeton UP.

Aristotle.  The Politics of Aristotle.  Ed. and trans. Ernest Barker.  New York:  Oxford UP, 1946, 1958.
“Astroturf.” Disinfopedia. Center for Media and Democracy 4 July 2004.

Bailin, Sharon.  “Is Argument for Conservatives?  Or, Where Do Sparkling Ideas Come From?”  Informal Logic 23.1 (2003).

Baker, George P., comp.  Specimens of Argumentation:  Modern.  2nd ed., revised.  NY, Henry Holt and Company, 1897.Preface.  Directions for Drawing a Brief.  Specimen Brief.  Material for Briefs:  Lord Chatham, on Removing Troops from Boston;  Lord Mansfield, in the Case of Evans;  Junius, Letter to the Printer of the Public Advertiser;  T.H. Huxley, Lecture I of Three Lectures on Evolution.  Argument in General:  Lord Erskine, Defense of Gordon.  Persuasion:  Henry Ward Beecher, Liverpool Speech;  Lord Macaulay, Speech on Copyright.

Baker, Sheridan.  The Essayist.  New York:  Thomas Y. Crowell, 1963.

Barker, Simon.  “The End of Argument:  Knowledge and the Internet.”  Philosophy and Rhetoric 33.2 (2000):  154-181.

Barnett, Timothy.  Teaching Argument in the Composition Course:  Background Readings.  Boston:  Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2002.

Barth, Else M., and Erik C. Krabbe.  From Axiom to Dialogue:  A Philosophical Study of Logics and Argumentation.  1982.

Bartholomae, D.  “The Argument of Reading.”  Argument Revisited, Argument Redefined.  Ed. Barbara Emmel.  Thousand Oaks, CA:  Sage, 1996.

Barton, Ellen L.  “Constrastive and Non-Contrastive Connectives:  Metadiscourse Functions in Argumentation.”  Written Communication 12.2 (April 1995):  219-39.

Barton, Ellen, and Susan Eggly. “Ethical or Unethical Persuasion?: The Rhetoric of Offers to Particpate in Clinical Trials.” Written Communication 26.3 (July 2009): 295-319.

Barton, Ellen L.  “More Methodological Matters:  Against Negative Argumentation.”  College Composition and Communication 51.3 (February 2000):  399-416.

Barton, Matthew D. “The Future of Rational-Critical Debate in Online Public Spheres.” Computers and Composition 22.2 (2005): 177-190.

Bator, Paul. “Aristotelian and Rogerian Rhetoric.” College Composition and Communication 31 (1980): 427-32.

Bean, John C.  “Seeking the Good:  A Course in Advanced Argument.”  Coming of Age: The Advanced Writing Curriculum.  Ed. Linda K. Shamoon, Rebecca Moore Howard, Sandra Jamieson, and Robert A. Schwegler.  Portsmouth, NH:  Heinemann Boynton/Cook, 2000.  76-80.

Beason, Larry.  “A Canon for Argumentation?” Composition Chronicle 10.2 (March 1997): 5-7.

Beason, Larry.  “Textbooks on Argumentative Writing.”  Composition Chronicle 8.2 (1995):  1-4.

Ben-Ze’ev, Aaron.  “Emotions and Argumentation.”  Informal Logic 17.2 (Spring 1995):  189-200.
Berkenkotter, Carol, and Thomas Huckin. “You Are What You Cite.” Professional Communication: The Social Perspective. Ed. Nancy Roundy Blyer and Charlotte Thralls. Newbury Park: Sage, 1993. 109-134.

Berrill, Deborah P.  “Reframing Argument from the Metaphor of War.”  Perspectives on Written Argument.  Ed. Deborah P. Berrill.  Cresskill, NJ:  Hampton, 1996.

Berrill, Deborah P., ed.  Perspectives on Written Argument.  Cresskill, NJ:  Hampton, 1996.

Bierut, Michael.  “On (Design) Bullshit.”  Weblog entry.  Design Observer 9 May 2005.  25 May 2005 <>.

Binkley, Robert W.  “Argumentation, Education and Reasoning.”  Informal Logic 17.2 (Spring 1995):  127-43.

Bitzer, Lloyd.  “Rhetoric and Public Knowledge.”  Rhetoric, Philosophy, and Literature. Ed. Don M. Burks.  West Lafayette, IN:  Purdue UP, 1978.  67-93.

Bizzell, Patricia.  “The 4th of July and the 22nd of December:  The Function of Cultural Archives in Persuasion, as Shown by Frederick Douglass and William Apess.”  College Composition and Communication 48.1 (February 1997):  44-60.
Bizzell, Patricia. “Rationality as Rhetorical Strategy at the Barcelona Disputation, 1263: A Cautionary Tale.” College Composition and Communication 58.1 (Sept. 2006).

Black, Kathleen.  “Audience Analysis and Persuasive Writing at the College Level.”  Research in the Teaching of Writing 23 (October 1989):  231-53.

Blank, David.  “Analogy, Anomaly and Apollonius Dyscolus.”  Language.  Ed. Stephen Everson.  New York:  Cambridge UP, 1994.  149-65.

Bleich, David.  “In Case of Fire, Throw In (What to Do with Textbooks Once You Switch to Sourcebooks).”  (Re)Visioning Composition Textbooks:  Conflicts of Culture, Ideology, and Pedagogy.  Ed, Xin Liu Gale and Fredric G. Gale.  Albany:  SUNY UP, 1999.  15-44.

Bloom, Lynn, and Martin Bloom.  “The Teaching and Learning of Argumentative Writing.”  College English 29 (1967):  128-35.

Bohman, James, and William Rehg, eds.  Deliberative Democracy:  Essays on Reason and Politics.  Cambridge, MA:  MIT P, 1997.

Bohman, James.  Public Deliberation:  Pluralism, Complexity, and Democracy.  Cambridge, MA:  MIT P, 1996.
Bordelon, Suzanne. “Contradicting and Complicating Feminization of Rhetoric Narratives: Mary Yost and Argument from a Sociological Perspective.” Rhetoric Society Quarterly 35.3 (Summer 2005): 101-125.

Bordelon, Suzanne. “George Pierce Baker’s Principles of Argumentation: ‘Completely Logical’?” College Composition and Communication 57.3 (Feb. 2006): 416-441.

Bradbury, Nancy Mason, and Arthur Quinn.  Audiences and Intentions:  A Book of Arguments.  2nd ed.  New York:  MacMillan, 1994.

Brandt, Deborah P., ed.  Perspectives on Written Argument.  Cresskill, NJ:  Hampton, 1995.

Branham, Robert James.  Debate and Critical Analysis:  The Harmony of Conflict.  Hillsdale, NJ:  Lawrence Erlbaum, 1991.
Brent, Douglas. “Rogerian Rhetoric: An Alternative to Traditional Rhetoric.” Argument Revisited, Argument Redefined: Negotiating Meaning in the Composition Classroom. ed. Barbara Emmel, Paula Resch, and Deborah Tenny. Sage, 1996. 73-96.

Brent, Doug. “Young Becker and Pike’s ‘Rogerian’ Rhetoric: A Twenty-Year Reassessment.” College English 53 (1991): 452-66.

Briggs, John Channing.  “Edifying Violence: Peter Elbow and the Pedagogical Paradox.”  JAC:  A Journal of Composition Theory 15.1 (1995): 83-102.

Briggs, Terri.  “Helping Basic Writers Find a Topic:  Using Life Experiences.”  Exercise Exchange 43.2 (Spring 1998):  10-11.

Brinton, Alan.  “Analysis of Argument Strategies of Attack and Cooption:  Stock Cases, Formalization, and Argument Reconstruction.”  Informal Logic 17.2 (Spring 1995):  249-58.

Bruner, M. Lane.  “Producing Identities:  Gender Problematization and Feminist Argumentation.”  Argumentation and Advocacy 32.4 (1996):  185-199.

Bryant, Lizbeth A.  “A Textbook’s Theory:  Current Composition Theory in Argument Textbooks.”  (Re)Visioning Composition Textbooks:  Conflicts of Culture, Ideology, and Pedagogy.  Ed, Xin Liu Gale and Fredric G. Gale.  Albany:  SUNY UP, 1999.  113-136.

Buck, Gertrude.  A Course in Argumentative Writing.  New York:  Henry Holt, 1899.

Buck, Gertrude, and Kristine Mann.  A Handbook of Argumentation and Debating.  Orange, NJ:  the Orange Chronicle, 1906.

Campbell, Karlyn Kohrs.  Man Cannot Speak for Her: A Critical Study of Early Feminist Rhetoric.  2 vols.  New York: Greenwood P, 1989.

Carey, Christopher.  “Rhetorical Means of Persuasion.”  Essays on Aristotle’s Rhetoric.  Ed. AmŽlie Oksenberg Rorty.  Berkeley:  U California P, 1996.  399-415.

Carter, Robert E.  “The Background to Argument in the Far East.”  Perspectives on Written Argument.  Ed. Deborah P. Berrill.  Cresskill, NJ:  Hampton, 1996.

Castle, Terry.  “Contagious Folly:  An Adventure and Its Skeptics.”  Critical Inquiry 17 (Summer 1991).  Rpt. Questions of Evidence:  Proof, Practice, and Persuasion across the Disciplines.  Ed. James Chandler, Arnold I. Davidson, and Harry D. Harootunian.  Chicago:  U Chicago P, 1994.  11-42.

Cederblom, Jerry.  “Willingness to Reason and the Identification of the Self.”  Maimon, Elaine P., Barbara F. Nodine, and Finbarr W. O’Connor, eds.  Thinking, Reasoning, and Writing.  New York:  Longman, 1989, 147-60.

Chandler, James, Arnold I. Davidson, and Harry D. Harootunian, eds.  Questions of Evidence:  Proof, Practice, and Persuasion across the Disciplines.  Chicago:  U Chicago P, 1994.
Chomsky, Noam. Media Control: The Spectacular Achievements of Propaganda. New York: Seven Stories P, 2002.

Clark, Suzanne.  “Argument and Composition.”  Feminism and Composition Studies:  In Other Words.  Ed. Susan C. Jarratt and Lynn Worsham.  New York:  Modern Language Assocation, 1998.  94-99.

Clark, Suzanne.  “Rhetoric, Social Construction, and Gender:  Is It Bad to Be Sentimental?”  Writing Theory and Critical Theory.  Ed. John Clifford and John Schilb.  New York:  Modern Language Association, 1994.  96-108.

Cohen, Daniel H.  “Argument is War . . . and War is Hell:  Philosophy, Education, and Metaphors for Argumentation.”  Informal Logic 17.2 (Spring 1995):  177-88.

Comstock, Gary David.  “An Interdisciplinary Model for Examining Preconceptions.”  Perspectives 21.2 (Summer 1991):  14-22.
Coogan, David. “Service Learning and Social Change: The Case for Materialist Rhetoric.” College Composition and Communication 57.4 (June 2006).

Corder, Jim W.  “On Argument, What Some Call ‘Self-Writing,’ and Trying to See the Back Side of One’s Own Eyeballs.”  Rhetoric Review 22.1 (2003):  31-39.

Crable, Richard E.  “Knowledge-as-Status:  On Argument and Epistemology.”  Communication Monographs 49 (1982):  249-62.
Cramer, Clayton E. “Why Footnotes Matter: Checking Arming America‘s Claims.” Plagiary 1.11 (2006): 1-31.

Crenshaw, Carrie.  “The Normality of Man and Female Otherness:  (Re)producing Patriarchal Lines of Argument in the Law and the News.”  Argumentation and Advocacy 32.4 (1996):  170-185.

Cros, A.  “Teaching by Convincing: Strategies of Argumentation in Lectures.”  Argumentation 15.2.

Crosswhite, James.  The Rhetoric of Reason: Writing and the Attractions of Argument.  Madison: U Wisconsin P, 1996.  TCU BC177 .C765 1996

Crosswhite, James.  “Is There an Audience for This Argument?  Fallacies, Theories, and Relativisms.”  Philosophy and Rhetoric 28.2 (1995):  134-45.

Crosswhite, James.  The Rhetoric of Reason.  U Wisconsin P.

Crowhurst, Marion.  “Cohesion in Argument and Narration at Three Grade Levels.”  Research in the Teaching of English 21 (1987):  185-201.

Crowhurst, Marion.  “Interrelationships Between Reading and Writing Persuasive Discourse.”  Research in the Teaching of English 25.3 (October 1991):  314-38.
Crowley, Sharon. Toward a Civil Discourse: Rhetoric and Fundamentalism. U Pittsburgh P, 2006.

Currie, Pat.  “Fullness and Sound Reasoning:  Argument and Evaluation in a University Content Course.”  Perspectives on Written Argument.  Ed. Deborah P. Berrill.  Cresskill, NJ:  Hampton, 1996.  121-38.

D’Angelo, Frank J.  “Subliminal Seduction:  An Essay on the Rhetoric of the Unconscious.”  Rhetoric Review 4.2 (1986):  160-171.

Dasenbrock, Reed Way.  “Truth and Methods.”  College English 57.5 (September 1995):  546-61.

“Deliberative Democracy.”  n.p.  8 Feb. 1996.  19 Aug. 2004 <>.

Dinitz, Sue, and Jean Kiedaisch.  “Persuasion from a Eighteen-Year-Old’s Perspective:  Perry and Piaget.”  Journal of Teaching Writing 9 (Spring/Summer 1990):  85-98.

Duberman, Martin.  Left Out:  The Politics of Exclusion/Essays/1964-2002.  Cambridge, MA:  South End P, 2002.

Durst, Russel, Chester Laine, Lucille M. Schultz, and William Vilter.  “Appealing Texts:  The Persuasive Writing of High School Students.”  Written Communication 7 (April 1990):  200-231.

Dyehouse, Jeremiah. “Knowledge Consolidation Analysis: Toward a Methodology for Studying the Role of Argument in Technology Development.” Written Communication 24.2 (April 2007): 111-139.

Ede, Lisa. “Is Rogerian Rhetoric Really Rogerian?” Rhetoric Review 3.1 (Sept. 1984): 40-47.

Edelman, Murray.  Constructing the Political Spectacle.  U Chicago P, 1988.

Eemeren, Frans H. van. “The Study of Argumentation.” The Sage Handbook of Rhetorical Studies. Ed. Andrea A. Lunsford. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2009. 109-125.

Eemeren, Frans H. van.  “A World of Difference:  The Rich State of Argumentation Theory.”  Informal Logic 17.2 (Spring 1995):  144-58.

Elster, Jon, ed.  Deliberative Democracy.  New York:  Cambridge UP, 1998.

Emmel, Barbara, ed.  Argument Revisited, Argument Redefined:  Negotiating Meaning in the Composition Classroom.  Thousand Oaks, CA:  Sage, 1996.

Emmel, Barbara.  “Evidence as a Creative Act:  An Epistemology of Argumentative Inquiry.”  Argument Revisited, Argument Redefined.  Ed. Barbara Emmel.  Thousand Oaks, CA:  Sage, 1996.

Enkvist, N.E.  “‘Theme Dynamics’ and Style:  An Experiment.”  Studia Anglia Posnaniensa 5 (1973):  127-35.


Fahnestock, Jeanne.  “Teaching Argumentation in the Junior-Level Course.” Teaching Advanced Composition.  Ed. Katherine H. Adams and John L. Adams.  Portsmouth, NH:  Boynton/Cook, 1991.  179-194.

Fahnestock, Jeanne R., and Marie J. Secor.  “Grounds for Argument:  Stasis Theory and the Topoi.”  Argument in Transition:  Proceedings of the Third Summer Conference on Argumentation.  Ed. David Zarefsky, Malcolm Sillars, and Jack Rhodes.  Annandale, VA:  Speech Communication Association, 1983.  135-46.

Fahnestock, Jeanne, and Marie Secor.  “Classical Rhetoric:  The Art of Argumentation.”  Argument Revisited, Argument Redefined.  Ed. Barbara Emmel.  Thousand Oaks, CA:  Sage, 1996.

Fahnestock, Jeanne, and Marie Secor.  “Teaching Argument:  A Theory of Types.”  College Composition and Communication 34.1 (February 1983):  20-30.

Fahnestock, Jeanne, and Marie Secor.  A Rhetoric of Argument.  2nd ed.  New York:  McGraw-Hill, 1990.

Faigley, Lester, and Jack Selzer.  Good Reasons.  Boston:  Allyn and Bacon, 2000.

Fearnside/Holther: Fallacy, the Counterfeit of Argument 1959.

Fisher, Walter.

Frank, David, and Michelle Bolduc. “From vita contemplativa to vita activa: Cha•m Perelman and Lucie Olbrechts-Tyteca’s Rhetorical Turn.” Advances in the History of Rhetoric 7 (2004): 65-86.

Freedman, Aviva.  “Genres of Argument and Arguments as Genres.”  Perspectives on Written Argument.  Ed. Deborah P. Berrill.  Cresskill, NJ:  Hampton, 1996.

Freeman, James.  “Premise Acceptability, Deontology, Internalism, Justification.”  Informal Logic 17.2 (Spring 1995):  270-78.

Friedrich, James.  “Learning to View Psychology as a Science:  Self-Persuasion Through Writing.”  Teaching of Psychology 17 (February 1990):  23-26.

Fulkerson, Richard P.  “Kinneavy on Referential and Persuasive Discourse:  A Critique.”  College Composition and Communication 35 (1984):  43-56.

Fulkerson, Richard P.  “The Toulmian Model of Argument and the Teaching of Composition.”  Argument Revisited, Argument Redefined.  Ed. Barbara Emmel.  Thousand Oaks, CA:  Sage, 1996.

Fulkerson, Richard P.  “Transcending our Conception of Argument in Light of Feminist Critiques.”  Argumentation and Advocacy 32.4 (1996):  199-217.

Gage, John T.  “The Reasoned Thesis:  The E-Word and Argumentative Writing as a Process of Inquiry.”  Argument Revisited, Argument Redefined.  Ed. Barbara Emmel.  Thousand Oaks, CA:  Sage, 1996.

Gaskins, Richcrd.  Burdens of Proof in Modern Discourse.  Yale UP, 1992.

Gearhart, Sally Miller.  “The Womanization of Rhetoric.”  Women’s Studies International Quarterly 2 (1979):  195-202.

Gilbert, Nigel G.  “Referencing as Persuasion.”  Social Studies of Science 7 (1977):  113-22.

Ginzburg, Carlo.  History, Rhetoric, and Proof.  UP of New England.

Golson, Emily.  “Using Stories to Probe Assumptions, Question Authority, and Stabilize Meaning.” Questioning Authority:  Stories Told in School.  Ed. Linda Adler-Kassner and Susanmarie Harrington.  Ann Arbor:  U Michigan P, 2001.  77-96.

Govier, Trudy.  “Writers, Readers, and Arguments.”  Perspectives on Written Argument.  Ed. Deborah P. Berrill.  Cresskill, NJ:  Hampton, 1996.

Graham, Robert J.  “Teaching Argument as Persuasion Dialogue Through Point of View and the Commitment Store.”  Journal of Teaching Writing 18.1-2  (2000):  1-13.

Greenbaum, Andrea.  “‘Bitch’ Pedagogy:  Agonistic Discourse and the Politics of Resistance.”  Insurrections:  Approaches to Resistance in Composition Studies.  Ed. Andrea Greenbaum.  Albany:  SUNY UP, 2001.

Greene, Stuart.  “How Beginning Writing Students Interpret the Task of Writing an Academic Argument.”  Teaching Academic Literacy:  The Uses of Teacher-Research in Developing a Writing Program.  Ed. Katherine L. Weese, Stephen L. Fox, and Stuart Greene.  Mahwah, NJ:  Lawrence Erlbaum, 1999.  85-118.

Greene, Stuart.  “Making Sense of My Own Ideas:  The Problems of Authorship in a Beginning Writing Classroom.”  Written Communication 12.2 (April 1995):  186-218.

Groopman, Jerome.  “Dying Words.”  The New Yorker 28 October 2002:  62-70.
Gross, Alan G. “Presence as Argument in the Public Sphere.” Rhetoric Society Quarterly 35.2 (Spring 2005): 5-22.

Guralnick, Elissa S. “Breaking with Tradition: Honors Composition for Gifted Seniors.” Change (May/June 2001): 59-64.

Hansen, Hans Vilhelm.  “Whately on the ad Hominem:  A Liberal Exegesis.”  Philosophy and Rhetoric 29.4 (1996):  400-15.

Hanson, Hans V., and Robert C. Pinto, eds.  Fallacies:  Classical and Contemporary Readings.  University Park, PA:  Penn State P.

Hariman, Robert.  Political Style:  The Artistry of Power.  U Chicago P, 1995.
Harker, Michael. “The Ethics of Argument: Rereading Kairos and Making Sense in a Timely Fashion.” College Composition and Communication 59.1 (Sept. 2007): 77-97.

Hairston, Maxine. “Carl Rogers’s Alternative to Traditional Rhetoric.” College Composition and Communication 27 (Dec. 1977): 373-77.

Hairston, Maxine. “Using Carl Rogers’ Communication Theories in the Composition Classroom.” Rhetoric Review 1 (1982): 50-55.

Haynes-Burton, Cynthia.  “The Ethico-Political Agon of Other Criticisms:  Toward a Nietzschean Counter-Ethic.”  Pre/Text 11.3-4 (Fall/Winter 1990):  289-310.

Hays, Janice N., and Kathleen S. Brandt.  “Socio-Cognitive Development and Student Performance on Audience-Centered Argumentative Writing.”  Constructing Rhetorical Education.  Ed. Marie Secor and Davida Charney.  Carbondale:  Southern Illinois UP, 1992.  202-30.

Hays, Janice N., et al.  “A Sense of Audience in the Argumentative Writing of Students at Three Levels of Adult Socio-Cognitive Development.”  A Sense of Audience in Written Communication.  Ed. Duane H. Roen and Gesa Kirsch.  Sage.

Heath, Malcolm, trans. and ed.  Hermogenes’ “On Issues”:  Strategies of Argument in Later Greek Rhetoric.  Oxford:  Clarendon P.  Oxford:  Oxford UP, 1995.

Heeney, Tom.  “Henry Johnstone’s Anagnorisis:  Argumentum ad Hominem as Tragic Trope of Truth.”  Philosophy and Rhetoric 28.4 (1995):  388-404.

Heilker, Paul.  The Essay:  Theory and Pedagogy for an Active Form.  NCTE, 1996.

Hitchcock, David.  “Did Jesus Commit a Fallacy?”  .”  Informal Logic 17.2 (Spring 1995):  297-302.

Hollihan, Thomas A., and Kevin T. Baaske.  Arguments and Arguing:  The Products and Process of Human Decision Making.  New York:  St. Martin’s, 1994.
Howell, William G. Power without Persuasion: The Politics of Direct Presidential Action. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003.

Hutcheon, Linda.  “Rhetoric and Competition:  Academic Agonistics.”  Common Knowledge 9.1 (Winter 2003):  42-49.

Induction & deduction.

Irwin, Ronald R.  “Using Computer-Assisted Instruction and Developmental Theory to Improve Argumentative Writing.”  Informal Logic 17.2 (Spring 1995):  235-48.
Jackson, Leon. “The Reader Retailored: Thomas Carlyle, His American Audiences, and the Politics of Evidence.” Book History 2 (1999).

Janangelo, Joseph.  “Joseph Cornell and the Artistry of Composing Persuasive Hypertexts.”  College Composition and Communication  49.1 (February 1998):  24-44.

Jarratt, Susan C.  “Feminism and Composition:  The Case for Conflict.”  Contending with Words:  Composition and Rhetoric in a Postmodern Age.  Ed. Patricia Harkin and John Schilb.  New York:  MLA, 1991.  105-23.
Johnson, Cheryl L., and Jayne A. Moneysmith. Multiple Genres, Multiple Voices: Teaching Argument in Composition and Literature. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook, 2005.

Johnson, Ralph H.  Manifest Rationality:  A Pragmatic Theory of Argument.  Mahwah, NJ:  Lawrence Erlbaum, 2000.

Johnson, Ralph H.  “The New Logic Courses:  The State of the Art in Non-Formal Methods of Argument Analysis.”  Teaching Philolsophy 4.2 (1981):  123-43.

Johnson, Ralph H.  “The Principle of Vulnerability.”  Informal Logic 17.2 (Spring 1995):  259-69.

Johnson, Ralph H., and J. Anthony Blair.  “The Fallacy Approach to Criticizing Arguments.”  Thinking, Reasoning, and Writing.  Ed. Elaine P. Maimon, Barbara F. Nodine, and Finbarr W. O’Connor.  New York:  Longman, 1989.  111-124.

Johnstone, Henry W., Jr.  “Invective and Metaphysical Argument:  Heraclitus and Parmenides.”  Pre/Text 10 (Spring/Summer 1989):  87-9.

Jowett, Garth S., and Victoria O’Donnell.  Propaganda and Persuasion. 3rd ed.  Thousand Oaks, CA:  Sage, 1999.

Kastely, James L.  “From Formalism to Inquiry:  A Model of Argument in Antigone.”  College English 62.2 (November 1999):  222-241.

Kaufer, David S. and Cheryl Geisler.  “A Scheme for Representing Written Argument.”  Journal of Advanced Composition 11.1 (Winter 1991):  107-22.

Kaufer, David S., Cheryl Geisler, and Christine M. Neuwirth.  Arguing from Sources:  Exploring Issues Through Reading and Writing.  Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Keith, William M. “Toulmin’s Rhetorical Logic: Where’s the Warrant for Warrants?” Philosophy and Rhetoric 41.1 (2008).

Kennedy, George.  The Art of Persuasion in Greece.  Princeton:  Princeton UP, 1963.
Killingsworth, M. Jimmie. “Rhetorical Appeals: A Revision.” Rhetoric Review 24.4 (2005): 264-279.

Kirschenbaum, Howard, and Valerie Land Henderson, eds. The Carl Rogers Reader. Boston: Houghton, 1989.

Kneupper, Charles W.  “Argument Fields:  Some Social Constructivist Observations.”  Dimensions of Argument:  Proceedings of the Second Summer Conference on Argumentation.  Ed. George Ziegelmueller and Jack Rhodes.  Annandale, VA:  Speech Communication Association, 1981.

Koslowski, Barbara.  Theory and Evidence:  The Development of Scientific Reasoning.  Cambridge, MA:  MIT P, 1996.

Kroll, Barry M. “Broadening the Repertoire: Alternatives to the Argumentative Edge.”  Composition Studies 28.1 (Spring 2000): 11-27.

Kroll, Barry M. The Open Hand: Arguing as an Art of Peace. Utah State UP, 2013.

Lamb, Catherine E.  “Beyond Argument in Feminist Composition.”  College Composition and Communication 42 (1991):  11-24.

Lamb, Catherine.  “Other Voices, Different Parties:  Feminist Responses to Argument.”  Perspectives on Written Argument.  Ed. Deborah P. Berrill.  Cresskill, NJ:  Hampton, 1996.

Lassner, Phyllis. “Feminist Responses to Rogerian Argument.” Rhetoric Review 8.2 (Spring, 1990): 220-32.

Latour, Bruno, and Steve Woolgar.  Laboratory Life: The Social Construction of Scientific Facts.  1979.  2nd ed.  Princeton UP, 1986.

Lee, David A., and Jennifer J. Peck.  “Troubled Waters:  Argument as Sociability Revisited.”  Language in Society 24.1 (March 1995):  29-52.

Leith, Dick, and George Myerson.  The Power of Address:  Explorations in Rhetoric.  New York:  Routledge, 1989.
Lemann, Nicholas. “Hard Cases.” New Yorker 29 Jan. 2007: 31-32.

Lewontin, Richard C. “Facts and the Factitious in Natural Sciences.” Questions of Evidence: Proof, Practice, and Persuasion across the Disciplines. Ed. James Chandler, Arnold I. Davidson, and Harry Harootunian. Chicago: U Chicago P, 1994. 478-91.

Lincoln, Bruce.  Authority:  Construction and Corrosion.  U Chicago P, 1994.

Lindquist, Julie.  A Place to Stand : Politics and Persuasion in a Working-Class Bar.  New York:  Oxford UP, 2001.

Liu, Yameng.  “Rhetoric and Reflexivity.”  Philosophy and Rhetoric 28.4 (1995):  333-49.

Loftus, Elizabeth.  Eyewitness Testimony.  Rpt. 1996.

Lunsford, Karen.  “Distributed Argumentative Activity:  The Case of Remediating Scientific Publication.”  Syracuse University, 22 November 2002.

Lynch, Dennis A., Diana George, and Marilyn M. Cooper.  “Moments of Argument:  Agonistic Inquiry and Confrontational Cooperation.”  College Composition and Communication 48.1 (February 1997):  61-85.

Lynch, W. Mark.  “Discovering the Ripening Function of Argument:  Using Concepts from the New Rhetoric for Analysis and Response to Student Argumentation.”  Perspectives on Written Argument.  Ed. Deborah P. Berrill.  Cresskill, NJ:  Hampton, 1996.

Madigan, Robert.  “Improving the Writing Skills of Students in Introductory Psychology.”  Teaching of Psychology 17 (February 1990):  27-30.

Mangum, Geoffrey C., and Anne B. Allen Mangum.  “Forensic Rhetoric and Invention:  Composition Students as Attorneys.”  College Composition and Communication 34.1 (February 1983):  43-56.

Manolescu, Beth Innocenti. “Traditions of Rhetoric, Criticism, and Argument in Kames’s Elements of Criticism.”  Rhetoric Review 22.3 (2003):  225-243.

Martin, Wanda.  “Inquiry and Argument in Writing about Public Policy.”  Issues in Writing 6.1 (Fall 1993/Winter 1994):  38-50.

Matalene, Carolyn.  “Experience as Evidence:  Teaching Students to Write Honestly and Knowledgeably about Public Issues.”  Rhetoric Review 10 (1992):  252-265.  Rpt. The Writing Teacher’s Sourcebook.  Ed. Edward P.J. Corbett, Nancy Myers, and Gary Tate.  4th ed.  New York:  Oxford UP, 2000.  180-192.

Medhurst, Martin J.  Landmark Essays on American Public Address.  Davis, CA:  Hermagoras P, 1993.

Meiland, Jack.  “Methods of Thinking and College Education.”  Forum.  Ed. Patricia L. Stock.  Upper Montclair, NJ:  Boynton/Cook, 1983.

Miller, Carolyn R., and Davida Charney. “Persuasion, Audience, and Argument.” Handbook of Research on Writing. Ed. Charles Bazerman. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2008. 583-598.

Missimer, Connie.  “The Case that Alternative Argumentation Drives the Growth of KnowledgeÑSome Preliminary Evidence.”  Informal Logic 17.2 (Spring 1995):  201-11.

Moore, Kathleen Dean.  Inductive Arguments:  A Field Guide.  2nd ed.  Dubuque, IA:  Kendall/Hunt, 1989.

Moran, Richard.  “Artifice and Persuasion:  The Work of Metaphor in the Rhetoric.”  Essays on Aristotle’s Rhetoric.  Ed. AmŽlie Oksenberg Rorty.  Berkeley:  U California P, 1996.  385-98.

Moulton, Janice. “A Paradigm of Philosophy:  The Adversary Method.”  In Discovering Reality:  Feminist Perspectives on Epistemology, Metaphysics, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science.  Ed. Sandra Harding and Merill B. Hintikka.  Boston:  D. Reidel, 1983.  149-64.

Mulholland, Joan.  Handbook of Persuasive Tactics.  New York:  Routledge, 1994.

Nelms, Gerald. “The Case for Oral Evidence in Composition Historiography.” Written Communication 9.3 (1992): 356-384.

Novak, Joseph A.  “The Abduction of the Atom:  An Exercise in Hypothesizing.”  Informal Logic 17.2 (Spring 1995):  212-22.

Nussbaum, Martha Craven.  “Aristotle on Emotions and Rational Persuasion.”  Essays on Aristotle’s Rhetoric.  Ed. AmŽlie Oksenberg Rorty.  Berkeley:  U California P, 1996.  303-23.

Nye, Andrea.  Words of Power:  A Feminist Reading of the History of Logic.  New York:  Routledge, 1990.

O’Keefe, Daniel J.  Persuasion:  Theory and Research. Thousand Oaks, CA:  Sage, 1990.

Okrent, Daniel.  “An Electrician from the Ukranian Town of Lutsk.”  New York Times 13 June 2004.  19 Nov. 2004 <>.

Okrent, Daniel.  “What Do You Know, and How Do You Know It?”  New York Times Magazine 29 Feb. 2004.  29 Feb. 2004 <>.

Ong, Walter S.J.  Fighting for Life:  Contest, Sexuality, and Consciousness.  Ithaca:  Cornell UP, 1981.

Paine, Charles.  The Resistant Writer:  Rhetoric as Immunity, 1850 to the Present.  Albany:  SU of New York P, 1999.

Palczewski, Catherine.  “Argumentation and Feminisms.”  Argumentation and Advocacy 32.4 (1996):  161-170.

Perelman, Cha•m.

Perloff, Richard M.  The Dynamics of Persuasion:  Communication and Attitudes in the 21st Century.  2nd ed.  Mahwah, NJ:  Lawrence Erlbaum, 2003.

Perry, Thomas A., ed.  Evidence and Argumentation in Linguistics.  1980.

Petty, R.E.  Attitudes and Persuasion:  Classic and Contemporary Approaches.  Dubuque:  Wm. C. Brown, 1981.

Pinto, Robert C.  “Inconsistency, Rationality and Relativism.”  Informal Logic 17.2 (Spring 1995):  279-88.

Plato.  Crito.  The Last Days of Socrates.  Trans. Hugh Tredennick.  2nd rev. ed.  Penguin, 1969.  Rpt. Audiences and Intentions:  A Book of Arguments.  by Nancy Mason Bradbury and Arthur Quinn.  2nd ed.  New York:  MacMillan, 1994.  327-37.

Plato.  Phaedo.  Trans. G.M.A. Grube.  Indianapolis:  Hackett, 1981.  93-155.

Podis, Leonard A., and JoAnne M. Podis.  “The Rhetoric of Reproof.”  College English 63.2 (November 2000):  214-228.

Polanyi, Michael.  Personal Knowledge.  New York:  Harper & Row, 1964.

Powell, Malea.  “Listening to Ghosts:  An Alternative (Non)argument.”  Alt Dis:  Alternatives Discourses and the Academy.  Ed. Christopher Schroeder, Helen Fox, and Patricia Bizzell.  Portsmouth, NH:  Boynton/Cook, 2002.  11-22.

Power, Lawrence H.  “The One Fallacy Theory.”  Informal Logic 17.2 (Spring 1995):  303-14.

Pratkanis, Anthony, and Elliot Aronson.  Age of Propaganda:  The Everyday Use and Abuse of Persuasion.  2nd ed.  Holt, 2001.

Railsback, Celeste Condit.  “Beyond Rhetorical Relativism:  A Structural-Material Model of Truth and Objectivity.”  Quarterly Journal of Speech 69 (1983):  351-63.

Ramage, John, Micheal Callaway, Jennifer Clary-Lemon, and Zachary Waggoner. Argument in Composition. West Lafayette, IN: Parlor, 2009.

Reardon, Kathleen Kelley.  Persuasion in Practice.  Thousand Oaks, CA:  Sage, 1991.

Redfield, Karen A.  “Opening the Composition Classroom to Storytelling:  Respecting Native American Students’ Use of Rhetorical Strategies.”  Perspectives on Written Argument.  Ed. Deborah P. Berrill.  Cresskill, NJ:  Hampton, 1996.
Reid, Robert S. “Paul’s Conscious Use of the Ad Herennium’s ‘Complete Argument.’”Rhetoric Society Quarterly 35.2 (Spring 2005):

Reyes, G. Mitchell.  “Sources of Persuasion in the Iliad.”  Rhetoric Review 21.1 (2002):  22-39.

Roberts, Patricia, and Virginia Pompei Jones.  “Imagining Reasons:  The Role of the Imagination in Argumentation.”  JAC 15.3 (1995):  527-42.

Roberts, R.H., and J.M.M. Good, eds.  The Recovery of Rhetoric:  Persuasive Discourse and Disciplinarity in the Human Sciences.  London: Duckworth, 1993.

Roberts-Miller, Patricia.  “fighting Without Hatred:  Hannah Arendt’s Agonistic Rhetoric.”  JAC 22.3 (2002).

Rogers, Carl R. “Communication: Its Blocking and Its Facilitation.” On Becoming a Person. Boston: Houghton, 1961. 329-37.

Romano, Carlin.  “Is ‘Justification’ Talk Justified?”  Chronicle of Higher Education 21 February 2003.  18 February 2003.  <>.

Rosenthal, Jack.  “What to Do When News Grows Old Before Its Time.”  New York Times 8 Aug. 2004.  19 Aug. 2004 <>.

Rottenberg, Annette T.  Elements of Argument.  New York:  St. Martin’s P, 1985.

Rottenberg, Annette T.  “Examining Assumptions.”  Collective Wisdom:  A Sourcebook of Lessons for Writing Teachers.  Eds. Sondra J. Stang and Robert Wiltenburg.  New York:  Random House, 1988.  228-231.

Rowland, Robert C.  “In Defense of Rational Argument:  A Pragmatic Justification of Argumentation Theory and Response to the Postmodern Critique.”  Philosophy and Rhetoric 28.4 (1995):  350-64.

Salvatori, M.  “The ‘Argument of Reading’ in the Teaching of Composition.”  Argument Revisited, Argument Redefined.  Ed. Barbara Emmel.  Thousand Oaks, CA:  Sage, 1996.

Scheckels, Theodore F., Jr.  “Three Strategies for Deliberative Discourse:  A Lesson from Competitive Debating.”  College Composition and Communication 34.1 (February 1983):  31-42.

Secor, Marie.  “Modes of Thinking, Modes of Argument.”  The Writer’s Mind:  Writing as  a Mode of Thinking.  Ed. Janice N. Hays, Phyllis A. Roth, Jon R. Ramsey, and Robert D. Foulke.  Urbana:  NCTE, 1983.  67-72.

Sennott, Charles M.  “Report on Iraq Didn’t Credit U.S. Scholar.”  The Boston Globe 8 February 2003 <> 8 February 2003.

Shafer, Jack.  “Anonymice Infestation!”  Slate 17 Nov. 2004.  19 Nov. 2004 <>.

Shamoon, Linda K.  “International E-mail Debate.”  Electronic Communication Across the Curriculum. Ed. Donna Reiss, Dickie Selfe, and Art Young. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1998. 151-161.

Shaw, Harry Edmund.  “Responding to Student Essays.”  Teaching Prose:  A Guide for Writing Instructors.  Ed. Fredric V. Bogel et al.  New York:  W.W. Norton, 1984.  114-54.

Siegel, Harvey.  “Why Should Educators Care about Argumentation?”  Informal Logic 17.2 (Spring 1995):  159-76.

Slade, Christina.  “Reflective Reasoning in Groups.”  Informal Logic 17.2 (Spring 1995):  223-34.

Sosnoski, James J.  “A Mindless Man-Driven Theory Machine:  Intellectuality, Sexuality, and the Institution of Criticism.”  Feminisms:  An Anthology of Literary Theory and Criticism.  Ed. Robyn R. Warhol and Diane Price Herndl.  New Brunswick:  Rutgers UP, 1991.  40-57.

Special issue:  Argumentation and Feminisms.  Argumentation and Advocacy 32 (1996).

Special Symposium on Feminism and Argumentation.  Speaker and Gavel 32 (1997):  1-70.

Spigelman, Candace.  “Argument and Evidence in the Case of the Personal.”  College English 64.1 (September 2001):  63-87.
Spigelman, Candace. Personally Speaking: Experience as Evidence in Academic Discourse. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 2004.

Summerfield, Judith.  “Principles for Propagation:  On Narrative and Argument.”  Argument Revisited, Argument Redefined.  Ed. Barbara Emmel.  Thousand Oaks, CA:  Sage, 1996.

Suskind, Ron.  “Without a Doubt.”  New York Times 17 Oct. 2004.  LexisNexis.  Syracuse U, Bird Lib. 30 Oct. 2004.  <>.

Tannen, Deborah.  The Argument Culture:  Moving from Debate to Dialogue.  New York:  Random House, 1998.

Teich, Nathaniel, ed. Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1992.

Tejera, V.  “Rhetoric versus Evidence:  How Not to Denature the Sources.”  Philosophy and Rhetoric 28.4 (1995):  410-22.
Tellegen-Couperus, Olga, ed. Quintilian and the Law: The Art of Persuasion in Law and Politics. Leuven, Belgium: Leuven University Press, 2003.

Thompson, Dorothy Perry.  “Rescuing the Failed, Filed Away and Forgotten:  African Americans and Eurocentricity in Academic Argument.”  Perspectives on Written Argument.  Ed. Deborah P. Berrill.  Cresskill, NJ:  Hampton, 1996.  221-40.

Tiles, J.E.  “Logic and Rhetoric:  An Introduction to Seductive Argument.”  Philosophy and Rhetoric 28.4 (1995):  300-15.

Tindale, Christopher W.  Acts of Arguing:  A Rhetorical Model of Argument.  SU of New York P.

Toulmin, Stephen.

Trail, George Y.  “Teaching Argument and the Rhetoric of Orwell’s ‘Politics and the English Language.”  College English 57.5 (September 1995):  570-83.

Trasciatti, Mary Anne. “The Orator as Propagandist: Elizabeth Gurley Flynn and ‘The Truth About the Paterson Strike.’”  Advances in the History of Rhetoric 7 (2004): 45-63.

Tufte, Edward R.  Visual Explanations:  Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative.  Cheshire, CT:  Graphics P, 1997.

Ullman-Margalit, Edna, ed.  Reasoning Practically.  Oxford UP.

Valdes, Mario J.  “Deconstruction and Debate.”  MLA Newsletter 23.4 (Winter 1991):  2-3.

van Eemeren, Frans H., and Rob Grootendorst.  Argumentation, Communication, and Fallacies:  A Pragma-Dialectical Perspective.  Hillsdale, NJ:  Lawrence Erlbaum, 1992.

VanDerHeide, Jennifer, and George E. Newell. “Instructional Chains as a Method for Examining the Teaching and Learning of Argumentative Writing in Classrooms.” Written Communication 30.3 (July 2013): 300-29.

Verene, Donald Phillip.  “Philosophy, Argument, and Narration.” Philosophy and Rhetoric 22.2 (1989):  141-144.

Vorobej, Mark.  “Hybrid Arguments.”  Informal Logic 17.2 (Spring 1995):  289-96.

Wachbrit, Robert.  “A Note on the Difference between Deduction and Induction.”  Philosophy and Rhetoric 29.2 (1996):  168-78.

Wallen, Jeffrey.  “Professional Discord.”  College English 64.3 (January 2002):  348-359.

Walton, Douglas N.  Appeal to Popular Opinion.  University Park, PA:  Penn State UP.

Walton, Douglas N.  Arguments from Ignorance.  University Park, PA:  Penn State UP.

Walton, Douglas N.  Begging the Question:  Circular Reasoning as a Tactic of Argumentation.  NY:  Greenwood P, 1991.

Walton, Douglas N.  “Bias, Critical Doubt, and Fallacies.”  Argumentation and Advocacy 28 (1991):  1-22.

Walton, Douglas N.  Plausible Argument in Everyday Conversation.  SUNY P.

Walton, Douglas N.  “Practical Reasoning and the Structure of Fear Appeal Arguments.”  Philosophy and Rhetoric 29.4 (1996):  301-13.

Walton, Douglas N.  Relevance in Argumentation.  Mahwah, NJ:  Lawrence Erlbaum, 2003.

Watson-Gegeo, Karen.  “Argument as Transformation:  A Pacific Framing of Conflict, Community, and Learning.”  Perspectives on Written Argument.  Ed. Deborah P. Berrill.  Cresskill, NJ:  Hampton, 1996.

West, Thomas.  “Beyond Dissensus:  Exploring the Heuristic Value of Conflict.”  Rhetoric Review 15.1 (Fall 1996):  142-55.

Weston, Anthony.  A Rulebook for Arguments.  2nd ed.  Indianapolis:  Hackett, 1992.

Whately, Richard.  Elements of Logic.  Rpt. from 9th ed. Louisville, KY:  John P. Morton, n.d. (between 1830 and 1863).  Howard collection.
Dedication.  Preface.  Introduction.  Book I–Analytical Outline of the Science.  Book II–Synthetical Compendium.  Chapter 1–Of the Operations of the Mind, and of Terms.  Chapter 2–Of Propositions.  Chapter 3–Of Arguments.  Chapter IV–Supplement to Chapter III.  Chapter V–Supplement to Chapter I.  Book III–Of Fallacies.  Book IV–Dissertation on the Province of Reasoning.  Chapter 1–Of Induction.  Chapter II–On the Discovery of Truth.  Chapter III–Of Inference and Proof.  Chapter IV–Of Verbal and Real Questions.  Chapter V–Of Realism.  Appendix.  No. I–On certain Terms which are peculiarly liable to be used ambiguously.  No II–Miscellaneous Examples for the exercise of Learners.  No. III–Example of Analysis.  Index.

Wilkerson, K.E.  “From Hero to Citizen:  Persuasion in Early Greece.”  1982.  Rpt. Landmark Essays on Classical Greek Rhetoric.  Ed. Edward A. Schiappa.  Davis, CA:  Hermagoras P, 1994.  17-34.


Wilkinson, Andrew.  “Argument as a Primary Act of Mind.”  Perspectives on Written Argument.  Ed. Deborah P. Berrill.  Cresskill, NJ:  Hampton, 1996.

Williams, Sean D.  “Process-Product Ambiguity:  Theorizing a Perspective on World Wide Web Argumentation.”  JAC 22.2 (2002).

Wolfe, Christopher R., M. Anne Britt, and Jodie A. Butler. “Argumentation Schema and the Myside Bias in Written Argumentation.” Written Communication 26.2 (April 2009): 183-209.

Wolfe, Joanna. “Rhetorical Numbers: A Case for Quantitative Writing in the Composition Classroom.” College Composition and Communication 61.3 (Feb. 2010): 452-475.

Young, Marris, and Connie Kendall. “The Consequences of Rhetoric and Literacy: Power, Persuasion, and Pedagogical Implications.” The Sage Handbook of Rhetorical Studies. Ed. Andrea A. Lunsford. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2009. 335-352.

Young, Richard E., Alton L. Becker, and Kenneth L. Pike. Rhetoric: Discovery and Change. New York: Harcourt, 1970.

Zappen, James P. “Carl R. Rogers and Political Rhetoric.” PRE/TEXT 1 (1980): 95-113.

Zengerle, Jason.  “The State of the George W. Bush Joke.”  New York Times 22 Aug. 2004.  25 Aug. 2004 <>.

Ziarek, Ewa Plonowska.  An Ethics of Dissensus:  Postmodernity, Feminism, and the Politics of Radical Democracy.  Palo Alto, CA:  Stanford UP, 2001.

Ziman, John M.  Public Knowledge.  Cambridge UP, 1968.