Wednesday, July 18, 2018

Afrocentric Pedagogies


Adger, Carolyn Temple, Donna Christian, and Orland Taylor, eds.  Making the Connection:  Language and Academic Achievement among African American Students.  Urbana, IL:  National Council of Teachers of English, 1999.

Alexander, Clara Franklin.  “Black English Dialect and the Classroom Teacher.”  Tapping Potential:  English and Language Arts or the Black Learner.  Ed. Charlotte K. Brooks.  Urbana:  NCTE, 1981.  20-29.

Angle, Burr.  “Freshman English Applications of Current Research in Black English.”  Linguistic Perspectives on Black English.  Ed. Philip Luelsdorff.  MŸnster:  Regensberg, 1975. 

“The Ann Arbor Decision:  Memorandum Opinion and Order & the Educational Plan.”  Center for Applied Linguistics, n.d.

Anson, Robert Sam.  Best Intentions:  The Education and Killing of Edmund Perry.  New York:  Vintage, 1987.

Asante, Molefi Kete.  “Where Is the White Professor Located?”  AHA Perspectives 31.6 (September 1993):  19.

Balester, Valerie M.  Cultural Divide:  A Study of African-American College-Level Writers.  Portsmouth, NH:  Boynton-Cook, 1993.

Ball, Arnetha F., and Ted Lardner. African American Literacies Unleashed: Vernacular English and the Composition Classrom. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English, 2005.

Ball, A.F.  “Errors, Expectations, or Efficacy Evaluating the Writing of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students:  The Case of the African American English Speaker.”  Evaluating Writing:  Describing, Measuring, Judging.  Ed. C.R. Cooper and Lee Odell.  Urbana, IL:  National Council of Teachers of English, 1994.

Ball, Arnetha, and Ted Lardner.  “Dispositions Toward Language:  Teacher Constructs of Knowledge and the Ann Arbor Black English Case.”  College Composition and Communication 48.4 (December 1997):  469-485.

Baratz, Joan C.  “Teaching Reading in an Urban Negro School System.”  Teaching Black Children to Read.  Ed. Joan C. Baratz and Roger W. Shuy.  Washington, D.C.:  Center for Applied Linguistics, 1969.  91-116.

Baratz, Joan C., and Roger W. Shuy, eds.  Teaching Black Children to Read.  Washington, D.C.:  Center for Applied Linguistics, 1969.

Baugh, John.  Beyond Ebonics:  Linguistic Pride and Racial Prejudice.  Oxford UP.

Baugh, John.  “Considerations in Preparing Teachers for Linguistic Diversity.”  Making the Connection:  Language and Academic Achievement among African American Students.  Ed. Carolyn Temple Adger, Donna Christian, and Orland Taylor.  Urbana, IL:  National Council of Teachers of English, 1999.

Bereiter, Carl, and S. Engelmann.  Teaching Disadvantaged Children in the Preschool.  Englewood Cliffs, NJ:  Prentice-Hall, 1966.

Bleich, David.  “Reading as Membership.”  ADE Bulletin 102 (1992):  6-10.

Brooks, Charlotte K., ed.  Tapping Potential:  English and Language Arts for the Black Learner.  Urbana:  NCTE, 1981.

Brown, Jessie. “Advanced Composition.” CLA Journal 12 (1968): 26-31.

Brown, Roscoe C., Jr.  “Testing Black Student Writers.”  Writing Assessment:  Issues and Strategies.  Ed. Karen Greenberg, Harvey Weiner, and Richard Donovan.  New York:  Longman, 1986.

Butler, Melvin.  “The Implications of Black Dialect for Teaching English in Predominantly Black Colleges.”  CLA Journal 15 (1971):  235-239.

Butler, Melvin, ed.  Students’ Right to Their Own Language.  Urbana:  NCTE, 1974.

Campbell, Kermit E.  “Real Niggaz’s Don’t Die”:  African American Students Speaking Themselves into Their Writing.”  Writing in Multicultural Settings.  Ed. Carol Severino, Juan C. Guerra, and Johnnella E. Butler.  New York:  MLA, 1997.  67-78.

Canagarajah. A. Suresh.  “Safe Houses in the Contact Zone:  Coping Strategies of African-American Students in the Academy.”  College Composition and Communication  48.2 (May 1997):  173-196.

Caughie, Pamela L.  “‘Not Entirely Strange, . . . Not Entirely Friendly’:  Passing and Pedagogy.”  College English 54.7 (November 1992):  775-93.

Cazden, Courtney.  “The Language of African American Students in Classroom Discourse.”  Making the Connection:  Language and Academic Achievement among African American Students.  Ed. Carolyn Temple Adger, Donna Christian, and Orland Taylor.  Urbana, IL:  National Council of Teachers of English, 1999.

Cheramie, Deany M.  “Sifting Through Fifty Years of Change:  Writing Program Administration at an Historically Black University.” Historical Studies of Writing Program Administration:  Individuals, Communities, and the Formation of a Discipline.  Ed. Barbara L’Eplattenier and Lisa Mastrangelo.  West Lafayette, IN:  Parlor P, 2004.  145-166.

Chordas, Nina.  “Classrooms, Pedagogies, and the Rhetoric of Equality.”  College Composition and Communication 43.2 (May 1992):  214-24.

Clark, Urzula.  War Words:  Language, History and the Disciplining of English.  New York:  Elsevier, 2001.

Comfort, Juanita Rodgers.  “Becoming a Writerly Self:  College Writers Engaging Black Feminist Essays.”  College Composition and Communication 51.4 (June 2000):  540-559.

Crowell, Caryl Gottlieb, and Robert C. Wortman.  “Desegregation versus Bilingual Education:  The Struggles of a School Community.”  The Fate of Progressive Language Policies and Practices.  Ed. Curt Dudley-Marling and Carole Edelsky.  Urbana, IL:  National Council of Teachers of English, 2001.  105-119.

Delpit, Lisa D.  Other People’s Children:  Cultural Conflict in the Classroom.  New York:  New P, 1995.

Delpit, Lisa D.  “The Silenced Dialogue:  Power and Pedagogy in Educating Other People’s Children.”  Harvard Educational Review 58 (1988):  280-98.

Delpit, Lisa D.  “Skills and Other Dilemmas of a Progressive Black Educator.”  Harvard Educational Review 56 (1986):  379-85.

Deutsch, Martin, and Martin Whiteman.  “Social Disadvantage as Related to Intellective and Language Development.”  Social Class, Race, and Psychological Development.  Ed. Martin Deutsch, Irwin Katz, and Arthur Jensen.  New York:  Holt, Rhinehart, and Winston, 1968.

Du Bois, W.E.B.  The Education of Black People:  Ten Critiques, 1906-1960.  Ed. Herbert Aptheker.  New York:  Monthly Review P, 2001.

Everett, Anna. “The Revolution Will Be Digitized: Afrocentricity and the Digital Public Sphere.” Social Text 20.2 (Summer 2004).

Elam, Julia C., ed.  Blacks on White Campuses:  Proceedings of a Special NAFEO Seminar.  New York:  U P of America, 1983.

Evans, Henry L.  “An Afrocentric Multicultural Writing Project.”  Writing in Multicultural Settings.  Ed. Carol Severino, Juan C. Guerra, and Johnnella E. Butler.  New York:  MLA, 1997.  273-86.

Farr, Marcia.  “Awareness of Diversity.”  Assessment of Writing:  Politics, Policies and Practices.  Ed. Edward M. White, William D. Lutz, and Sandra Kamusikiri.  Modern Language Association, 1996.  241-6.

Farr, Marcia, and Gloria Nardini.  “Essayist Literacy and Sociolinguistic Difference.”  Assessment of Writing:  Politics, Policies and Practices.  Ed. Edward M. White, William D. Lutz, and Sandra Kamusikiri.  Modern Language Association, 1996.  108-119.

Farr, Marcia, and Harvey Daniels.  Language Diversity and Writing Instruction.  Urbana, Illinois:  National Council of Teachers of English, 1986.

Farrell, Thomas.  “IQ and Standard English.”  College Composition and Communication 34 (1983):  470-84.

Fasold, Ralph W.  “Orthography in Reading Materials for Black English Speaking Children.”  Teaching Black Children to Read.  Ed. Joan C. Baratz and Roger W. Shuy.  Washington, D.C.:  Center for Applied Linguistics, 1969.  68-91.

Fleming, Cynthia.  “Race Beyond Reason.”  AHA Perspectives 31.6 (September 1993):  18-19.

Foster, M.  “‘It’s Cookin’ Now’:  A Performance Analysis of the Speech Events of a Black Teacher in an Urban Community College.”  Language in Society 18 (1989):  1-29.

Fox, Tom.  “Basic Writing as Cultural Conflict.”  Journal of Education 172 (1990):  65-83.

Fox, Tom.  Defending Access:  A Critique of Standards in Higher Education. Portsmouth, NH:  BoyntonCook, 1999.

Fox, Tom.  “Race and Collective Resistance.”  Insurrections:  Approaches to Resistance in Composition Studies.  Ed. Andrea Greenbaum.  Albany:  SUNY UP, 2001.

Fox, Thomas.  “Repositioning the Profession:  Teaching Writing to African American Students.”  Journal of Advanced Composition 12.2 (Fall 1992):  291-304.

Gale, Xin Liu.  “‘The Stranger’ in Communication:  Race, Class, and Conflict in a Basic Writing Class.”  JAC:  A Journal of Composition Theory 17.21 (1997):  53-68.

Gardner, Susan, and Toby Fulwiler, eds.  The Journal Book for Teachers of At-Risk Students.  Portsmouth, NH:  Heinemann Boynton/Cook, 1999.

Gill, Glenda E.  “The African-American Student:  At Risk.”  College Composition and Communication 43.2 (May 1992):  225-30.

Gilyard, Keith.  “Cross-Talk:  Toward Transcultural Writing Classrooms.”  Writing in Multicultural Settings.  Ed. Carol Severino, Juan C. Guerra, and Johnnella E. Butler.  New York:  MLA, 1997.  325-32.

Gilyard, Keith.  Let’s Flip the Script:  An African American Discourse on Language, Literature and Learning.  Detroit:  Wayne State UP, 1996.

Gilyard, Keith, ed.  Race, Rhetoric, and Composition.  Portsmouth, NH:  BoyntonCook, 1999.

Gilyard, Keith.  Voices of the Self:  A Study of Language Competence.  Detroit:  Wayne State UP, 1991.

Gilyard, Keith, and Elaine Richardson.  “Students’ Right to Possibility:  Basic Writing and African American Rhetoric.”  Insurrections:  Approaches to Resistance in Composition Studies.  Ed. Andrea Greenbaum.  Albany:  SUNY UP, 2001.

Gold, David.  “‘Nothing Educates Us Like a Shock’:  The Integrated Rhetoric of Melvin B. Tolson.”  College Composition and Communication 55.2 (December 2003):  226-253.

Gonsalves, Lisa M.  “Making Connections:  Addressing the Pitfalls of White Faculty/Black Male Student Communication.”  College Composition and Communication 53:3 (February 2002):  435-465.

Goodman, Kenneth.  “Dialect Barriers to Reading Comprehension.”  Teaching Black Children to Read.  Ed. Joan C. Baratz and Roger W. Shuy.  Washington:  Center for Applied Linguistics, 1969.  14-28.

Goodman, Kenneth.  “Linguistic Diversity, Teacher Preparation and Professional Development.”  Black English and the Education of Black Children and Youth.  Ed. Geneva Smitherman.  Detroit:  Center for Black Studies, 1981.  171-89.

Greene, Brenda.  “Autobiography as a Liberating Force in the Basic Writing Classroom.”  Voices in English Classrooms:  Honoring Diversity and Change.  Ed. Lenora Cook and Helen Lodge.  Urbana:  National Council of Teachers of English, 1996.  212-218.

Hairspray.  Dir. John Waters.  Perf. Ricki Lake, Divine, Jerry Stiller, Michael St. Gerard, Ruth Brown.  New Line, 1988.

Hale, Janice E.  Black Children, Their Roots, Culture and Learning Styles.  Provo, Utah:  Brigham Young UP, 1982.

Harris-Wright, Kelli.  “Enhancing Bidialectalism in Urban African American Students.”  Making the Connection:  Language and Academic Achievement among African American Students.  Ed. Carolyn Temple Adger, Donna Christian, and Orland Taylor.  Urbana, IL:  National Council of Teachers of English, 1999.

Hartwell, Patrick.  “Dialect Interference in Writing:  A Critical View.”  Research in the Teaching of English 14 (1980):  101-18.

Haswell, Richard H.  “Grades, Time, and the Curse of Course.”  College Composition and Communication 51.2 (December 1999):  284-295.

Hilliard, Asa G., III.  “Language, Diversity, and AssessmentÑIdeology, Professional Practice, and the Achievement Gap.”  Making the Connection:  Language and Academic Achievement among African American Students.  Ed. Carolyn Temple Adger, Donna Christian, and Orland Taylor.  Urbana, IL:  National Council of Teachers of English, 1999.

Holloway, Karla F.C.  “Cultural Politics in the Academic Community:  Masking the Color Line.”  College English 55.6 (October 1993):  610-17.

Holt, Thomas.  “‘Knowledge Is Power’:  The Black Struggle for Literacy.”  The Right to Literacy.  Ed. Andrea A. Lunsford, Helene Moglen, and James Slevin.  New York:  MLA, 1990.  91-102.

Howard, Rebecca Moore.  “The Great Wall of African American Vernacular English in the American College Classroom.”  JAC:  A Journal of Composition Theory 16.2 (1996):  265-84.

Howard, Rebecca Moore.  “Style, Race, Culture, Context.”  Coming of Age: The Advanced Writing Curriculum.  Ed. Linda K. Shamoon, Rebecca Moore Howard, Sandra Jamieson, and Robert A. Schwegler.  Portsmouth, NH:  Heinemann Boynton/Cook, 2000.  94-105.

Irvine, Patricia, and Nan Elsasser.  “The Ecology of Literacy:  Negotiating Writing Standards in a Caribbean Setting.”  The Social Construction of Written Communication.  Ed. Bennett A. Rafoth and Donald L. Rubin.  Norwood NJ:  Ablex, 1988.  304-20.

Jackson, Austin, and Geneva Smitherman. “‘Black People Tend to Talk Eubonics’: Race and Curricular Diversity in Higher Education.” Strategies for Teaching First-Year Composition. Ed. Duane Roen, Veronica Pantoja, Lauren Yena, Susan K. Miller, and Eric Waggoner. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 2002. 46-50.

Jensen, Arthur R.  “The Differences Are Real.” Psychology Today 7 (1973):  80-82, 84, 86.

Jensen, Arthur R.  “How Much Can We Boost IQ and Scholastic Achievement?”  Harvard Education Review 39 (1969):  1-123.

Johnson, Cheryl L.  “Participatory Rhetoric and the Teacher as Racial/Gendered Subject.”  College English 56.4 (April 1994):  409-19.

Jordan, June.  “Nobody Mean More to Me Than You and the Future Life of Willie Jordan.”  Harvard Educational Review 58 (1988):  363-74.  Rpt. Women’s Voices and Perspectives.  Ed. Pat C. Hoy.  New York:  McGraw-Hill, 1990.  107-119.  Rpt. Landmark Essays on Voice and Writing.  Ed. Peter Elbow. Mahwah, NJ:  Hermagoras Press, 1994.  59-72.

Jordan, William Chester.  “Confronting the Afrocentric Obsession.”  AHA Perspectives 31.6 (September 1993):  11-13.

Kamusikiri, Sandra.  “African American English and Writing Assessment:  An Afrocentric Approach.”  Assessment of Writing:  Politics, Policies and Practices.  Ed. Edward M. White, William D. Lutz, and Sandra Kamusikiri.  Modern Language Association, 1996.  187-203.

Kates, Susan.  “The Embodied Rhetoric of Hallie Quinn Brown.”  College English 59.1 (January 1997):  59-71.

Kells, Michelle Hall, and Valerie Balester, eds.  Attending to the Margins:  Writing, Researching, and Teaching on the Front Lines.  Portsmouth, NH:  Heinemann Boynton/Cook, 1999.

Kennedy, Graeme.  “The Language of Tests for Young Children.”  The Language Education of Minority Children.  Ed. Bernard Spolsky.  Rowley:  Newbury, 1972.  164-81.

Kirschner, Samual A., and G. Howard Poteet.  “Non-Standard English Usage in the Writing of Black, White, and Hispanic Remedial English Students in an Urban Community College.”  Research in the Teaching of English 7 (1973):  351-5.

Kochman, Thomas.  “Black American Speech Events and a Language Program for the Classroom.”  Functions of Language in the Classroom.  Ed. Courtney B. Cazden, Vera P. John, and Dell Hymes.  New York:  Teachers College, Columbia U, 1972.  211-66.  372.6 C296f

Labov, William.

Lee, Carol.  Signifying as a Scaffold for Literary Interpretation:  The Pedagogical Implications of an African American Discourse Genre.  Urbana:  National Council of Teachers of English, 1993.

Lee, Felicia R.  “Grappling with How to Teach Young Speakers of Black Dialect.”  The New York Times 5 January 1994:  A1, D22.

Litwack, Leon F.  “The Two-Edged Suspicion.”  AHA Perspectives 31.6 (September 1993):  13-14.

Logan, Shirley Wilson.  “‘When and Where I Enter’:  Race, Gender, and Composition Studies.”  Feminism and Composition Studies:  In Other Words.  Ed. Susan C. Jarratt and Lynn Worsham.  New York:  Modern Language Assocation, 1998.  45-57.

“LSA Resolution on the Oakland ‘Ebonics’ Issue.”  Linguistic Society of America.  January 1997.  <http://www.lsadc.org/ebonics.html>.

Mahiri, Jabari.  Shooting for Excellence:  African American and Youth Culture in New Century Schools.  Urbana, IL:  NCTE, 1998.

Malcolm X.  “Coming to an Awareness of Language.”  Language Awareness.  Ed. Paul Escholz, Alfred Rosa, and Virginia Clark.  New York:  St. Martin’s P, 1986.  13-16.

Martin Luther King Junior Elementary School Children v. Ann Arbor School District Board.   “Court Memorandum and Opinion.”  1978.

Meier, Terri.  “The Case for Ebonics As Part of Exemplary Teacher Preparation.”  Making the Connection:  Language and Academic Achievement among African American Students.  Ed. Carolyn Temple Adger, Donna Christian, and Orland Taylor.  Urbana, IL:  National Council of Teachers of English, 1999.

Michaels, Sarah, and James Colins.  “Oral Discourse Styles:  Classroom Interaction and the Acquisition of Literacy.”  Cohesion in Spoken and Written Discourse.  Ed. Deborah Tannen.  Norwood, NJ:  Ablex, 1984.  219-44.

Miller, Carol A.  “‘Better Than What People Told Me I Was’:  What Students of Color Tell Us about the Multicultural Composition Classroom.”  Writing in Multicultural Settings.  Ed. Carol Severino, Juan C. Guerra, and Johnnella E. Butler.  New York:  MLA, 1997.  287-97.

Miller, Keith D., and Elizabeth A. Vander Lei.  “Collaboration, Collaborative Communities, and Black Folk Culture.”  The Right to Literacy.  Ed. Andrea A. Lunsford, Helene Moglen, and James Slevin.  New York:  MLA, 1990.

Murphy, Sandra.  “Writing Portfolios in K-12 Schools:  Implications for Linguistically Diverse Students.”  New Directions in Portfolio Assessment:  Reflective Practice, Critical Theory, and Large-Scale Scoring.  Ed. Laurel Black, et al..  Portsmouth, NYH:  Boynton/Cook, 1994.  140-56.

Musgrave, Marian.  “Failing Minority Students:  Class, Caste, and Racial Bias in American Colleges.”  College Composition and Communication 22 (1971):  24-29.

Nicola-McLaughlin, AndrŽe, and Zala Chandler.  “Urban Politics in the Higher Education of Black Women:  A Case Study.”  Women and the Politics of Empowerment.  Ed. Ann Bookman and Sandra Morgen.  Philadelphia:  Temple UP, 1988.  180-201.

Nobile, Vince.  “White Professors, Black History:  Forays into the Multicultural Classroom.”  AHA Perspectives 31.6 (September 1993):  1, 7-11.

O’Brien, Sheila Ruzycki.  “Writing to Learn about Gender, Race and Class.”  ATAC Forum 4.2 (Fall 1992):  1-4.

Palacas, Arthur L.  “Write About Ebonics:  A Composition Course at the University of Akron.”  Journal of Teaching Writing 21.1-2 (2004):  97-122.

Parks, Stephen. Class Politics: The Movement for the Students’ Right to Their Own Language. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English, 2000.

Perkins, Priscilla.  “Detecting the Camouflaged Conflicts:  Blackness, Whiteness, and Language Difference in Basic Writing Courses.”  Conflicts and Crises in the Composition ClassroomÑand What Instructors Can Do About Them.  Ed. Dawn Skorczewski and Matthew Parfitt.  Portsmouth, NH:  Boynton/Cook, 2003.  51-55.

“Policy Statement of the TESOL Board on African American Vernacular English.”  Center for Applied Linguistics.  10 March 1997.  <http://www.cal.org/ebonics/tesolebo.html>.

Pough, Gwendolyn D.  “Empowering Rhetoric:  Black Students Writing Black Panthers.”  College Composition and Communication 53:3 (February 2002):  466-486.

Poussaint, Alvin, and Carolyn Atkinson.  “Black Youth and Motivation.”  Black Self-Concept.  Ed. James A. Banks and Jean Grambs.  New York:  McGraw-Hill, 1972.  55-69.

Ramsey, Paul A.  “Teaching the Teachers to Teach Black-Dialect Writers.”  Tapping Potential:  English and Language for the Black Learner.  Ed. Charlotte K. Brooks.  Urbana:  NCTE, 1981.

Reagan, Daniel.  “Naming Harlem:  Teaching the Dynamics of Diversity.”  Pedagogy in the Age of Politics:  Writing and Reading (in) the Academy.  Ed. Patricia A. Sullivan and Donna J. Qualley.  Urbana, IL:  National Council of Teachers of English, 1994.  43-55.

Redd, Teresa M. “Accommodation and Resistance on (the Color) Line: Black Writers Meet White Artists on the Internet.” Electronic Communication Across the Curriculum. Ed. Donna Reiss, Dickie Selfe, and Art Young. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1998. 139-150.

Redd, Teresa M., and Victoria Massey.  “How E-Mail Affects African American Student Writers.”  JAC 17 (1997):  245-266.

Redd, Teresa. “Keepin’ It Real: Delivering College Composition at an HBCU.” Delivering College Composition: The Fifth Canon. Ed. Kathleen Blake Yancey. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook, 2006. 72-88.

Redd, Teresa M.  “A Cultural Perspective:  Teaching Composition at a Historically Black University.”  Strategies for Teaching First-Year Composition.  Ed. Duane Roen, Veronica Pantoja, Lauren Yena, Susan K. Miller, and Eric Waggoner. Urbana, IL:  NCTE, 2002.  21-33.

Richardson, Elaine.  African American Literacies.  New York:  Routledge, 2003.

Rickford, John R.  African American Vernacular English:  Features:  Evolution, Educational Implications.  Malden, MA:  Blackwell, 1999.

Rickford, John R.  “Language Diversity and Academic Achievement in the Education of African American StudentsÑ An Overview of the Issues.”  Making the Connection:  Language and Academic Achievement among African American Students.  Ed. Carolyn Temple Adger, Donna Christian, and Orland Taylor.  Urbana, IL:  National Council of Teachers of English, 1999.

Royster, Jacqueline Jones.  “When the First Voice You Hear Is Not Your Own.”  College Composition and Communication 47.1 (February 1996):  29-40.

Royster, Jacqueline Jones, and Jean C. Williams.  “History in the Spaces Left:  African American Presence and Narratives of Composition Studies.”  College Composition and Communication 50.4 (June 1999):  563-585.

Rymes, Betsy, and Kate Anderson. “Second Language Acquisition for All: Understanding the Interactional Dynamics of Classrooms in Which Spanish and AAE Are Spoken.” Research in the Teaching of English 39.2 (Nov. 2004).

Scott, Jerrie Cobb.  “Accommodating Nonmainstream Language in the Composition Classroom.”  Language Variation in North American English:  Research and Teaching.  Ed. A. Wayne Glowka and Donald M. Lance.  New York:  Modern Language Association, 1993.  331-45.

Severino, Carol, Juan C. Guerra, and Johnnella E. Butler, eds.  Writing in Multicultural Settings. New York:  MLA, 1997.

Seymour, Dorothy.  “Black Children, Black Speech.”  Language Awareness.  Ed. Paul Escholz, Alfred Rosa, and Virginia Clark.  New York:  St. Martin’s, 1985.  74-83.

Shuy, Roger W.  “A Linguistic Background for Developing Beginning Reading Materials for Black Children.”  Teaching Black Children to Read.  Ed. Joan C. Baratz and Roger W. Shuy.  Washington, D.C.:  Center for Applied Linguistics, 1969.  117-37.

Simmons, Gloria M., and Helene Hutchinson, eds. Black Culture:  Reading and Writing Black. New York:  Holt, Rhinehart, and Winston, 1972.

Simpkins, Edward.  “Equitable Policy.”  Black English and the Education of Black Children and Youth.  Ed. Geneva Smitherman.  Detroit:  Center for Black Studies, 1981.  163-70.

Sims, Rudine.  “Dialect and Reading:  Toward Redefining the Issues.”  Reader Meets Author/Bridging the Gap:  A Psycholinguistic and Sociolinguistic Approach.  Ed. Judith A. Langer and M. Tricia Smith-Burke.  Newark, DE:  International Reading Association, 1982.  222-32.

Sledd, James.  “In Defense of the Students’ Right.”  College English 45.7 (November 1983):  667-75.

Smitherman, Geneva, ed. Black English and the Education of Black Children and Youth. Detroit: Center for Black Studies, 1981.

Smitherman, Geneva. Black Language and Culture: Sounds of Soul. New York: Harper, 1975.

Smitherman, Geneva. “Black Power Is Black Language.” Black Culture: Reading and Writing Black. Ed. Gloria M. Simmons and Helene Hutchinson. New York: Holt, Rhinehart, and Winston, 1972.

Smitherman, Geneva. “‘The Blacker the Berry, the Sweeter the Juice’: African American Student Writers.” The Need for Story: Cultural Diversity in Classroom and Community. Ed. Anne Haas Dyson and Celia Genishi. Urbana: National Council of Teachers of English, 1994. 80-101.

Smitherman, Geneva. “CCCC’s Role in the Struggle for Language Rights.” College Composition and Communication 50.3 (February 1999): 349-376.

Smitherman-Donaldson, Geneva, and Teun A. van Dijk, eds. Discourse and Discrimination. Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1988.

Smitherman, Geneva. “Discriminatory Discourse on Afro-American Speech.” Discourse and Discrimination. Ed. Geneva Smitherman-Donaldson and Teun A. van Dijk. Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1988.

Smitherman, Geneva. “The Historical Struggle for Language Rights in CCCC.” Language Diversity in the Classroom: From Intention to Practice. Ed. Geneva Smitherman and Victor Villanueva. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 2003. 7-39.

Smitherman, Geneva. “Language and Democracy in the USA and the RSA.” Language Ideologies: Critical Perspectives on the Official English Movement. Vol. 2. Ed. Roseann Duenas Gonzalez. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English, 2001. 316-345.

Smitherman, Geneva, and Victor Villanueva, eds. Language Diversity in the Classroom: From Intention to Practice. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 2003.

Smitherman, Geneva. “Language Policy and Classroom Practices.” Making the Connection: Language and Academic Achievement among African American Students. Ed. Carolyn Temple Adger, Donna Christian, and Orland Taylor. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English, 1999.

Smitherman, Geneva. “Meditations on Language, Pedagogy, and a Life of Struggle.” Rhetoric and Ethnicity. Ed. Keith Gilyard and Vorris Nunley. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook, 2004. 3-14.

Smitherman, Geneva. “The ‘Mis-education of the Negro’–And You Too.” Not Only English: Affirming America’s Multilingual Heritage. Ed. Harvey A. Daniels. Urbana, Illinois: NCTE, 1990. 109-20.

Smitherman, Geneva. Talkin that Talk: African American Language and Culture. New York: Routledge, 1999.

Smitherman, Geneva. Talkin and Testifyin: The Language of Black America. Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1977, 1986.

Smitherman-Donaldson, Geneva. “Toward a National Public Policy on Language.” College English 49 (1987): 29-36.

Smitherman, Geneva. “‘What Go Round Come Round’: King in Perspective.” Linguistics for Teachers. Eds. Linda Miller Cleary and Michael D. Linn. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993. 130-148.

Sollors, Werner.  Beyond Ethnicity:  Consent and Descent in American Culture.  Oxford UP.

Soichet, Catherine.  “Study Finds Many C’s Still Awarded, with Black Students Earning Lower Grades on Average.”  The Chronicle of Higher Education (27 June 2002).  <http://chronicle.com/daily/2002/06/2002062702n.htm>.  4 July 2002.

Sternglass, Marilyn.  “Close Similarities in Dialect Features of Black and White College Students in Remedial Composition Classes.”  TESOL Quarterly 8 (1974):  271-83.

Stevenson, Brenda.  “Take a Step Toward Trust.”  AHA Perspectives 31.6 (September 1993):  14-17.

Stewart, William A.  “Facts and Issues Concerning Black Dialect.”  The English Record 21 (1971):  121-135.

Stewart, William A.  “On the Use of Negro Dialect in the Teaching of Reading.”  Teaching Black Children to Read.  Ed. Joan C. Baratz and Roger W. Shuy.  Washington, D.C.:  Center for Applied Linguistics, 1969.  156-219.

Sullivan, Patricia A., and Donna J. Qualley, eds.  Pedagogy in the Age of Politics:  Writing and Reading (in) the Academy.  Urbana, IL:  National Council of Teachers of English, 1994.

Swearingen, C. Jan.  “The New Literacy/Orality Debates:  Ebonics and the Redefinition of Literacy in Multicultural Settings.” Crossing Borderlands: Composition and Post-Colonial Studies.  Ed. Andrea A. Lunsford and Lahoucine Ouzgane. U Pittsburgh P, 2004.  238-254.

Taylor, Hanni U.  Standard English, Black English and Bidialectism:  A Controversy.  New York:  Peter Lang, 1989.

Taylor, Todd.  “The Persistence of Difference in Networked Classrooms:  Non-Negotiable Difference and the African American Student Body.”  Computers and Composition 14 (1997):  169-178.  Rpt. The Writing Teacher’s Sourcebook.  Ed. Edward P.J. Corbett, Nancy Myers, and Gary Tate.  4th ed.  New York:  Oxford UP, 2000.  113-122.

Thompson, Dorothy Perry.  “Empowering Black Students in the Racially Mixed Classroom.”  Session H18, Conference on College Composition and Communication, Seattle WA, March 1989.

Thompson, Dorothy Perry.  “Rescuing the Failed, Filed Away and Forgotten:  African Americans and Eurocentricity in Academic Argument.”  Perspectives on Written Argument.  Ed. Deborah P. Berrill.  Cresskill, NJ:  Hampton, 1996.

Troike, R.C.  “Receptive Bidialectalism:  Implications for Second-Dialect Teaching.”  Language and Cultural Diversity in American Education.  Ed. R.D. Abrahams and R.C. Troike.  Englewood Cliffs, NJ:  Prentice-Hall, 1972.  305-10.

Troutman, Denise.  “Whose Voice Is It Anyway?  Marked Features in the Writing of Black English Speakers.”  Writing in Multicultural Settings.  Ed. Carol Severino, Juan C. Guerra, and Johnnella E. Butler.  New York:  MLA, 1997.  27-39.

Vaughn-Cooke, Fay.  “Lessons Learned from the Ebonics ControversyÑImplications for Language Assessment.”  Making the Connection:  Language and Academic Achievement among African American Students.  Ed. Carolyn Temple Adger, Donna Christian, and Orland Taylor.  Urbana, IL:  National Council of Teachers of English, 1999.

Villanueva, Victor, Jr.  Bootstraps:  From an American Academic of Color.  Urbana, IL:  National Council of Teachers of English, 1993.

Weaver, Constance.  Black Dialect?  Or Black Face?  ERIC, 1974.  091-713.

Whiteman, Marcia Farr, ed.  Reactions to Ann Arbor:  Vernacular Black English and Education.  Arlington:  Center for Applied Linguistics, 1980.

Williams, Alisea C.  “‘Race,’ Writing, and the Politics of Public Disclosure.”  College Composition and Communication 45.3 (October 1994):  389-400.

Williamson, Juanita.  “What Can We Do About It?ÑThe Contribution of Linguistics to the Teaching of English.”  CLA Journal 1 (1957):  23-27.

Wilson, Allison.  “Black Dialect and the Freshman Writer.”  Journal of Basic Writing 4 (1985):  44-54.

Winer, Lise.  “Teaching Speakers of Caribbean English Creoles in North American Classrooms.”  Language Variation in North American English:  Research and Teaching.  Ed. A. Wayne Glowka and Donald M. Lance.  New York:  Modern Language Association, 1993.  191-8.

Winerip, Michael.  “Discovering Crisis, Again and Again.”  New York Times 30 April 2003.  <http://www.nytimes.com/2003/04/30/education/30EDUC.html?ei=5070&en=6f6ab1a97f275a73&ex=1052971200&pagewanted=print&position=>.  Accessed 13 May 2003.

Wolfram, Walt.  “Language Ideology and Dialect:  Understanding the Oakland Ebonics Controversy.”  Journal of English Linguistics 26 (1998):  108-121.

Wolfram, Walt.  “Repercussions from the Oakland Ebonics ControversyÑThe Critical Role of Dialect Awareness Programs.”  Making the Connection:  Language and Academic Achievement among African American Students.  Ed. Carolyn Temple Adger, Donna Christian, and Orland Taylor.  Urbana, IL:  National Council of Teachers of English, 1999.

Wolfram, Walt.  “Teaching the Grammar of Vernacular English.”  Language Variation in North American English:  Research and Teaching.  Ed. A. Wayne Glowka and Donald M. Lance.  New York:  Modern Language Association, 1993.  16-28.

Wolfram, Walter A., and Ralph W. Fasold.  “Toward Reading Materials for Speakers of Black English:  Three Linguistically Appropriate Passages.”  Teaching Black Children to Read.  Ed. Joan C. Baratz and Roger W. Shuy.  Washington, D.C.:  Center for Applied Linguistics, 1969.  138-55.

Yellin, David.  “The Black English Controversy:  Implications from the Ann Arbor Case.”  Journal of Reading 24 (1980):  150-4.

Young, Vershawn Ashanti.  “Your Average Nigga.”  College Composition and Communication 55.4 (June 2004):  693-715.